Chronic and Acute Asthma

Asthma

 Introduction

 Asthma is a common disease of respiratory viruses and allergen associated with the environmental factors and genetics background. It may results in severe illness and mortality. It affects the airway, and it partially obstructs the airflow (Redington & Morice, 2005).. With overdevelopment of the mucus gland, the airway thickens as a result of the inflammation, bronchoconstriction and the narrowing of the airway in the lungs. Bronchial inflammation also results in narrowing due to edema and the swelling that is caused by immune response to allergens (Bukhman & Kidder, 2011).

 

 Asthma affects the airway, and it partially obstructs the airflow. With overdevelopment of the mucus gland, the airway thickens as a result of the inflammation, bronchoconstriction and the narrowing of the airway in the lungs (Calhoun, 2014). Bronchial inflammation also results in narrowing due to edema and the swelling that is caused by immune response to allergens.

 Inflamed airways react with environmental pollutants like smokes, dust or pollen that triggers bronchial inflammation during an asthma episode. As a result of this inflammation, the airway becomes narrow and produces excess mucus within it causing difficulty in breathing (Judd, 2008). When a person gets an asthma attack, the PaO2 falls from 100 mm Hg to about 60 mm HG, and the pH rises from 7.4 to 7.5. PaCO2 drops from 40 mm Hg to about 30 mm Hg. As the changes continue taking place, the condition worsens until PaCO2 falls to 20 mm Hg and pH rises to 7.6. At this point, the lungs are unable to expel CO2, and its concentration in the arteries begins to rise, leading to a fall in pH, but PaO2 continues to fall, thus exacerbating the attack (Cazzola, 2009).

 Diagnosis

 Asthma could easily be diagnosed by observation of its common symptoms, which include shortness of breath, wheezing, chronic coughs, and trouble sleeping.

 Treatment and Management Options

 Quick Relief Option

 Quick relief medications usually include the short-acting inhaled or the oral beta2 agonists, or the ipratropium (Atrovent). They are usually taken when required for the immediate relief of the acute symptoms of asthma, and before exercise to avoid and reduce the exercise-induced bronchospasm (Kemp & Kemp, 2001).

 Inhaled Corticosteroids. The method has not yet received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration as a safe treatment for children below the age of 12 years. However, it is helpful to children who do not use the inhaled beta2.

 Short-acting beta2. They are usually available in different forms such as inhaled, pills, injectable, and liquid. They are usually the therapy of choice as they smoothly relax the bronchial muscles to relieve acute symptoms while reducing exercise-induced bronchospasm (Kemp & Kemp, 2001).

 Oral corticosteroids. According to Kemp and Kemp (2001), the oral treatment is used in limited and short-courses due to their broad anti-inflammatory effects. It is only used to gain the speed and control resolutions over the persistent exacerbations.

 Long Term Control

 Medications intended to control asthma for long-term are required to be taken frequently to maintain and prevent exacerbations (Cazzola, 2009). These methods include:

 Inhaled Corticosteroids. They are believed and proven to be the best long-term medications for anti-inflammatory (Kemp & Kemp, 2001). The treatment reduces airway inflammation, improvement of the pulmonary function, and the reduction of the bronchial hyper-responsiveness

 Oral Corticosteroids. The medication is always used to gain swift control of the poorly controlled persistent asthma, and usually when starting the long-term therapy of the disease. The oral corticosteroids control, reverses, and maintains inflammation at the lowest possible level. This is through the reduction of airway sensitivity and blocking of the late allergen reactions.

 The stepwise approach is taken to control asthma. It leads to the reduction of chronic symptoms such as breathlessness, or coughing, and helps to maintain normal pulmonary function. It is also effective in the prevention of exacerbation of asthma in patients, and minimizing possible side effects of such occurrences (Kalhoun, 2015).

 Summary

 Asthma is a respiratory condition that affects a person who is sensitive to allergens and viruses that are closely related to genetic and environmental factors. It usually results in death, in its severity, since it partially closes the airflow into the lungs, and its subsequent uptake into the blood vessels. Bronchial inflammation contributes to this blockage. Asthma is triggered by common environmental pollutants such as smoke, pollen, or dust, which causes the inflammation of the bronchi.

 There are various relief options for an asthmatic. One of them is the inhalation of beta-2 agonist, or the ipratropium (Atrovent), which relieves the condition immediately. Corticosteroids are effective in reduction of inflammation, but are yet to be approved for children under 12 years. The short-acting beta-2 is available in the form of injectable, pills, inhalation, or liquid, and they help to relieve the bronchial muscles, and thus preventing bronchospasm.

  Asthma control and treatment aims to manage the disease using the least amount of medication with maximum effects. It employs a 6-step approach for different constituents of a demography.